North Hall Library


ESL 1112

Topic Starters

Finding Academic Videos

If you want to find documentaries or academic videos, check out this database: 

Evaluating your Sources with RADAR

There are multiple ways to evaluate sources, but one that we recommend is the RADAR method.

This stands for: 


These five areas can help you evaluate the quality and usefulness of your sources. 

For more information, check out the following link: 

The Information Cycle

When you begin your research, you may find that you're not getting a lot of "scholarly," or peer-reviewed sources (also known as academic articles). This might be because your topic is too recent! The Information Cycle shows the timeline for when things are published related to an event. If you're not finding as many scholarly articles and books, consider broadening your topic a bit. 

Note for the sciences: In the sciences, research studies often go to a scholarly journal first and then to the news media (if they're published in the news.) 


The Information Cycle: An event happens. Immediately, it is available on the internet, television, and radio. Within a week, it is available in newspapers. Within a month it is available in popular magazines. All of these are considered fact-based sources. After a few months, you will see scholarly journals and government publications on the topic. At least a year later, books will be written on the topic. Years later, reference books, including encyclopedias, will be published including this topic. These later sources contain analysis about the event.

Library Jargon Dictionary

Library Jargon Dictionary

Term Definition Why use this? 
Abstract A short summary of an article

Helps you understand what the article is about without having to read the whole thing and helps you eliminate articles that aren't relevant to your research

Boolean operators Basic terms you put between search terms to indicate relationship between terms (AND, OR, NOT) Help narrow or broaden your search
Call number The number on the spine of the book that helps librarians organize books on the shelves This is how you find books on the shelves - they're organized by Library of Congress call numbers
Database An online resource where you find journal articles, newspaper articles, magazine articles, and more These can help you find articles and other online resources for your research
Journal A collection of articles written by scholars or experts in their fields These are where you find articles, whether they're online journals or print journals. These articles tend to be narrow in scope. 
Magazine A collection of articles generally written by staff or freelance writers and aimed at the general public These are often considered "popular" and not "scholarly" 
Peer Reviewed A piece of writing that has been reviewed by other experts in the field who have approved it for publication This is what professors usually mean when they want you to use "scholarly" resources
Permalink A link that will always take you back to the article you've found Make sure that you look for these. In library databases, the URL at the top of the webpage tends to change, so a permalink may be the only way to get back to the article you found if you didn't save a PDF copy
Refereed (same as Peer Reviewed)  
Stacks Where the books are located When you go to the stacks to find a book, you can look around the book to find others that might be useful to your research (also known as "shelf reading")

Your Librarian

Profile Photo
Holly Jackson

112 North Hall Library
Mansfield University
Mansfield, PA 16933

Librarian for: African American Studies, English, First Year Experience, History, international students, Music, Philosophy, Political Science, Sociology, Student Success Services, World Languages

Pronouns: she/her

Popular vs. Trade vs. Scholarly Publications

CRITERIA Popular Magazine Trade Publication Scholarly Journal


Anyone People who works in the field Academics, scholars, and those studying in the field
Author Journalists, staff writers, or freelance writers
Staff writers, industry specialists, or vender representatives
Experts or specialists (often PhD)
  • General interest
  • Popular culture
  • General news
  • Entertainment
  • Industry related news
  • Trends
  • Techniques
  • Product reviews
  • Statistical data
  • Upcoming events
  • Original research (e.g., scientific experiments, surveys, and research studies)
  • Critical analysis of topics relative to the profession
  • Charts, diagrams, and/or tables showing data or experiment results (often included)
Advertisements? Almost always and in high quantities Advertising almost always present; ads relate to relevant industry, trade, or organization Occasionally, but highly specialized and specific to scholarly discipline
Editorial Review Professional editors
Professional editors
Journal editorial board and peer reviewers
References/Works Cited? Rarely Sometimes Almost always

Works that are published by staff or freelance writers who do not have to have their work peer reviewed before publication. These can be useful for community perspectives or popular opinion as examples in a paper, though they should be supported by more scholarly evidence. 



Works that have gone through a more detailed approval process for publication - usually peer review for articles or through an editor at a University Press. Because they have gone through editors and/or peer review, these tend to be less likely to contain mistakes and are written by experts in the field for others researching in the same field.